Mars


Number of Satellites: 2 (Phobos and Deimos)
Rotation Period: 24 hours and 37 minutes
Temperature: -140 to 20 degrees celsius (-220 to 60 fahrenheit)
Length of Year: About 1 Earth-year and ten and a half months (687 days)
Diameter: 6796 Km (4223 Miles)
Axial Tilt: 25.19 degrees
Atmosphere: Mainly Carbon Dioxide
Magnetic field: No (partial)


Missions to Mars:

Marsnik 1 (Mars 1960A)      -       10 October 1960      -       Attempted Mars Flyby (Launch Failure)
Marsnik 2 (Mars 1960B)      -       14 October 1960      -       Attempted Mars Flyby (Launch Failure)
Sputnik 22                            -       24 October 1962      -       Attempted Mars Flyby
Mars 1                                  -        1 November 1962      -       Mars Flyby (Contact Lost)
Sputnik 24                             -        4 November 1962      -       Attempted Mars Lander
Mariner 3                               -        5 November 1964      -       Attempted Mars Flyby
Mariner 4                              -       28 November 1964      -       Mars Flyby
Zond 2                                 -        30 November 1964      -       Mars Flyby (Contact Lost)
Zond 3                                -         18 July 1965                -         Lunar Flyby, Mars Test Vehicle
Mariner 6                             -         25 February 1969      -       Mars Flyby
Mariner 7                             -         27 March 1969          -        Mars Flyby
Mars 1969A                        -         27 March 1969         -         Attempted Mars Orbiter (Launch Failure)
Mars 1969B                        -           2 April 1969           -         Attempted Mars Orbiter (Launch Failure)
Mariner 8                             -          8 May 1971            -         Attempted Mars Flyby (Launch Failure)
Cosmos 419                        -         10 May 1971           -         Attempted Mars Orbiter/Lander
Mars 2                                -         19 May 1971           -         Mars Orbiter/ Attempted Lander
Mars 3                                -         28 May 1971            -        Mars Orbiter/ Lander
Mariner 9                             -        30 May 1971           -        Mars Orbiter
Mars 4                                -         21 July 1973            -         Mars Flyby (Attempted Mars Orbiter)
Mars 5                                -         25 July 1973           -         Mars Orbiter
Mars 6                                -         5 August 1973        -         Mars Lander (Contact Lost)
Mars 7                                -         9 August 1973         -         Mars Flyby (Attempted Mars Lander)
Viking 1                              -         20 August 1975        -         Mars Orbiter and Lander
Viking 2                               -        9 September 1975    -       Mars Orbiter and Lander
Phobos 1                             -         7 July 1988              -       Attempted Mars Orbiter/Phobos Landers
Phobos 2                            -       12 July 1988               -       Mars Orbiter/Attempted Phobos Landers
Mars Observer                   -       25 September 1992      -       Attempted Mars Orbiter (Contact Lost)
Mars Global Surveyor         -       07 November 1996      -       Mars Orbiter
Mars 96                               -       16 November  1996    -         Attempted Mars Orbiter/Landers
Mars Pathfinder                  -         04 December 1996      -       Mars Lander and Rover
Nozomi (Planet-B)             -         3 July 1998                -         Mars Orbiter
Mars Climate Orbiter         -         11 December 1998      -       Attempted Mars Orbiter
Mars Polar Lander              -        3 January 1999          -         Attempted Mars Lander
Deep Space 2 (DS2)           -         3 January 1999         -        Attempted Mars Penetrators
2001 Mars Odyssey            -        7 April 2001              -         Mars Orbiter
Mars Express                      -         2 June 2003              -        Mars Orbiter and Lander
Spirit (MER-A)                  -        10 June 2003             -         Mars Rover
Opportunity (MER-B)        -         7 July 2003               -         Mars Rover
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter -    10 August 2005         -         Mars Orbiter
Phoenix                              -         04 August 2007         -        Mars Scout Lander
Phobos-Grunt                    -         08 November 2011    -       Martian Moon Phobos Lander
Yinghuo-1                         -        08 November 2011      -       Mars Orbiter
Mars Science Laboratory  -        25 November 2011       -  Mars Rover
MAVEN                            -        18 November 2013 (planned) -  Mars Scout Mission Orbiter



Mars in history:


Mars was regarded as a malevolent agent of war, pestilence and apocalyptic disaster. Often in an attempt to calm down the planet-god, various ancient cultures offered it human sacrifices. This concept of a evil god was found in the New World as well as the Old one.



In Babylonian civilization Mars was identified as the god of war Nergal. Deity of the desert, god of fire, god of war, which is one of negative aspects of the sun, god of the underworld, and also being a god of one of the religions which rivaled Christianity and Judaism, Nergal was sometimes called a demon and even being identified with Satan. According to Collin de Plancy and Johann Weyer, Nergal was said to be the chief of Hell's "secret police", and said to be "an honorary spy in the service of Beelzebub".
Greeks called this planet Ares their god of war. Ares was the great Olympian god of war, civil order and manly courage. In Greek art he was depicted as either a mature, bearded warrior dressed in battle arms, or a nude beardless youth with helm and spear.

In Mayan, Mars is depicted as a long nosed monster or animal, hanging from a band that stretch across the sky and sometimes Mars is depicted to be a regular human.

In recent history Mars was believed to be the home of green aliens which were forced to live inside artificial structures named "canals" and in present time Mars is the best candidate for alien life form, but this time microbiological life.



Geology:

Mars has a meteorite collection on the surface whit the primarily composed of basalt. Some evidence suggets that a portion of Martian surface is more silica-rich than typical basalt and may be similar to Andesitic rocks from Earth, these observation explained by the presence of silica glass. Much of the surface is deeply covered in grained iron oxide dust (from which the red color comes).

Although Mars has no current structured global magnetic field, observations show that parts of the planet's crust have been magnetized and that alternating polarity reversals of its dipole field have occurred in the past. This paleomagnetism of minerals has properties very similar to the alternating bands found on the ocean floors on Earth. These bands also demonstrate that around four billion years ago on Mars where tectonic plates, before the planetary dynamo ceased to function and caused the planet's magnetic field to fade away.

In current models of the planet the interior has a core region about 1,480 km radius, consisting primarily of iron with about 14-17% sulfur. This iron sulfide core is partially fluid and has twice the concentration of the lighter elements than exist at Earth's core. The core is surrounded by a silicate mantle that formed many of tectonic and volcanic features on the planet, but now appears to be inactive. The planet crust has an average thickness of about 50 km, with a maximum thickness of 125 km. Earth's crust is averaging to 40 km and it is only one third as thick as Mars crust, relative to the size of the two planets.

In the formation of the Solar System Mars was created out of the protoplanetary disk that orbited the Sun as the result of a stochastic process of run-away accretion. Mars has a many distinctive chemical features caused by its position in the Solar System. Elements with low boiling points such as chlorine, phosphorus and sulphur are much more common on Mars than Earth.

After the formation of the planets about 60% of the surface of Mars shows an impact record from that era. Much of the rest of the surface of Mars is probably underlain by immense impact basins that date from this time and in norther hemisphere of Mars is a crater spanning 10,600 km by 8,500 km (about four times larger that the Moon's South Pole-Aitken basin), this suggests that Mars was struck by a Pluto sized body about four billion years ago. This event created the smooth Borealis basin that covers 40% of the planet.

In the geological history of Mars there are three main periods:
- Noachian period (named after Noachis Terra): Formation of the oldest extant surfaces of Mars, 4.5 billion years ago to 3.5 billion years ago.  Noachian age surfaces are scarred by many large impact craters. The volcanic upland is thought to have formed during this period with extensive flooding by liquid water late in the period.
- Hesperian period (named after Hesperia Planum): 3.5 billion years ago to 2.9-3.3 billion years ago. This period is marked by the formation of extensive lava plains.
_ Amazonian period (named after Amazonis Planitia): 2.9 - 3.3 billion years ago to present. Amazonian regions have few meteorite impact craters, but are otherwise quite varied. Olumpus Mons formed during this period along with lava flows elsewhere on Mars.

Mars is still have some geological activity. The Athabasca Valles is to sheet-like lava flows. Water flows in the grabens called the Cerberus Fossae. On February 19. 2008 images from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter showed evidence of an avalanche from a 700 m high cliff.

| la 10:59 AM

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